Budget Types In Management Accounting

Objectives Of A Budget / Accounting-Management

In most cases, for a governmental entity, the budget represents the legal authority to spend money. Adoption of a budget in the public sector implies that a set of decisions has been made by the governing board and administrators that culminates in matching a government’s resources with the entity’s needs. The term budget has negative connotations for many employees. Often in the past, management has imposed a budget from the top without considering the opinions and feelings of the personnel affected. Such a dictatorial process may result in resistance to the budget.

Understanding of behavioural aspects of budget is very important for managers. The essence of budget-related behaviour has been captured through four theoretical constructs, variance analysis, budget pressure, participation, and interactions. This feature tends to be formal as it results from upper management’s specific use of budgets to evaluate performance of managers. Responses of managers to overspent budgets and budget pressure by charging some activities to other accounts, shifting figures, and stopping some activities tends to be informal. Several organizational behavioralists have offered variety of theories about managerial behaviour and organizational life.

The Role Of The Master Budget

This requires more time, effort and money for budget preparation. CIMA has defined a rolling budget as – “a budget continuously updated by adding a further period, say a month or quarter and deducting the earliest period”.

Objectives Of A Budget / Accounting-Management

In constructing a Business Plan, the manager attempts to forecast Income and Expenditure, and thereby profitability. Budgets help to restrain the empire building efforts of executives. Budgets broaden individual thinking by helping to remove unconscious biases on the part of engineers, sales and production officers.

Establishment Of Adequate Accounting Records

Thus, if the sales budget covers the next 5 years, production and cost budgets may cover one year only. Yearly budgets are divided into months so that actual results can be compared with the budgeted figures and corrective actions can be taken where necessary. In small concerns, a budget officer or the chief accountant prepares the budget and coordinates all the work involved. An organisation is divided into several segments, which are clearly defined for the purpose of budgetary control according to responsibilities of departmental heads.

  • Is a tool that managers use to plan and control the use of scarce resources.
  • There should be a proper system of control which will ensure that the work is progressing as per the plan.
  • Every producer classifies expenditure, and fixed expenses and variable expenses are useful to learn the break-even points for output and sales.
  • The size of the bond initiative for a particular program may be determined by estimates of aggregate costs generated during the planning process and may not include detailed project budgets until funding has been secured.
  • This is a treacherous objective, since employees attempt to modify the budget to make their personal objectives easier to achieve .
  • Review the stated goals and objectives to determine that they are the basis for the entity’s activities and operations.

It also lists out details of the responsibilities of different persons and the managers involved in the process. Thus depending upon the type of budget, the period of the same is decided and it must be decided well in advance.

Line-item budgeting is still the most widely used approach in many organizations, including schools, because of its simplicity and its control orientation. It is referred to as the “historical” approach because administrators and chief executives often base their expenditure requests on historical expenditure and revenue data. Although many companies have used participatory budgeting successfully, it does not always work. Studies have shown that in many organizations, participation in the budget formulation failed to make employees more motivated to achieve budgeted goals. Whether or not participation works depends on management’s leadership style, the attitudes of employees, and the organization’s size and structure. Participation is not the answer to all the problems of budget preparation. However, it is one way to achieve better results in organizations that are receptive to the philosophy of participation.

The budget officer, often called budget director or controller, should be directly responsible to the chief executive and acts as a secretary of the budget committee. Well-defined lines of authority and responsibility should be established throughout the organisation. All departmental executives should be aware of their authority and responsibility. While Objectives Of A Budget / Accounting-Management preparing sales budget, other factors such as competition in the market, policy of government towards industry should be taken into consideration. Sales manager should keep in mind the probable changes in the policies of business organisation. When an organisation brings any new product, it may change the advertising policy distribution ratio accordingly.


It is prepared keeping in view the sales budgets, production capacity, probable changes in stock and loss in production. Some companies use the budgeting process as a tool for deciding where to allocate funds to various activities, such as fixed asset purchases. Though a valid objective, it should be combined with capacity constraint analysis to determine where resources should really be allocated.

The development of multiyear construction budgets has two fundamental stages. The first stage involves extensive planning to identify facilities needs. This may be accomplished through the process outlined in the previous chapter on financial forecasting and planning. A committee may be created specifically for capital planning or as part of a strategic planning effort. Identification of capital needs may also come from maintenance staff or from a contracted evaluation. The evaluations should identify the costs for a particular program, and from these inputs, a determination can be made regarding whether to pursue a construction project.

Recent Business Accounting Articles

A comprehensive budget, properly developed, will initially contain organizational goals and expectations, and subsequently can be used as an effective evaluation technique. A budget is a detailed plan of operations for some specific future period. It is an estimate prepared in advance of the period to which it applies, it acts as a business barometer as it is a complete programme of activities of the business for the period covered. In the budgetary control system, the overall budget is prepared through the formulation of various functional departmental budgets. The importance of budgetary control in management is immense. Budgetary control not only organizes the overall control system of the organization but also serves as the basis for planning. One of the primary goals of budgetary control is to coordinate the functions of various business departments.

Yet an operational budget based on what is most probable runs the risk of setting targets so low as to adversely affect motivation. To motivate properly, a budget should set objectives higher than those set for planning and should present objectives that are difficult yet attainable.

Management Action And Cost Control

Due to these issues, all organizations have started to use budgetary techniques. The technique of budgetary control is used to compare actual expenditures and budgeted expenditures, as well as to analyze and correct variations. It takes time to establish an efficient budgeting process. Also, some­times too much is expected from a budget and in case expectations are not fulfilled, the blame is put on the budget.

The type, quantity, and quality of goods and services provided by governments often are not subject to the market forces of supply and demand. Thus, enacting and adhering to the budget establishes restrictions in the absence of a competitive market. https://accountingcoaching.online/ Structured Query Language What is Structured Query Language ? Structured Query Language is a specialized programming language designed for interacting with a database…. Budgeting is a critical process for any business in several ways.

  • The business plan that sets measures and indicators of performance.
  •  Proper reporting to the management is essential and feedback is to be provided to the employees from time to time so that corrective steps can be taken to meet the targets.
  • To reap the benefit of a budgetary control system it should cover all the areas organization.
  • The manager’s results are compared both with a fixed standard and with a standard that presumably has been adjusted for uncontrollable or unforeseeable environmental changes.
  • It is considered a transitional form between traditional line-item and performance approaches, and it may be called modified program budgeting.
  • Continuous comparison of actual performance with budgetary performance.

The accounting system should be able to record and analyse the information required. The budget procedures must use the same classification of expenses and revenues as the accounting department for comparison purposes. The organisational goal should be quantified and clearly defined. These goals must be within the framework of the organisation’s strategic and long range plans. The responsible executives should agree that the budget goals are reasonable and attainable. It is an estimate of total sales to be made during a definite period.

Ratio Analysis

It shows budgeted expenses classified by functions, activities and unit cost, if possible. Establishment of budgets is the first step in budgetary control.

Objectives Of A Budget / Accounting-Management

The process begins by establishing assumptions for the upcoming budget period. These assumptions are related to projected sales trends, cost trends, and the overall economic outlook of the market, industry, orsector. Specific factors affecting potential expenses are addressed and monitored.

When the budget for advertising has been fully expended, the decision on “can we spend money on advertising” is likely to be “no”. Budgets help to search out weaknesses in the organisational structure. The formulation and administration of budgets isolate problems of communication, of fixed responsibility, and of working relationships. The existence of a well-laid plan is the major step towards achieving coordination. Executives are forced to think of the relationships among individual operations, and the company as a whole. Action that can be taken when a significant variance has been revealed will depend on the nature of the variance itself. Some variances can be identified to a specific department and it is within that department’s control to take corrective action.

An efficient budgeting programme requires that the responsible persons should understand the philosophy, objectives, and essentials of budgeting. It combines the ideas of different levels of management and coordinates all activities of business to centralise control but decentralise responsibility of each manager. It means, first budgets are prepared and then actuals are recorded and by comparing them the variances are found out which will enable the management to take necessary corrective action. In business zero-base budgeting was introduced by Peter Payal of USA in 1969. It helps the manager in implementation and formation of various managerial activities. Under this system, every item is checked independently before the preparation of the budget, so that its utility may be ascertained in real life. Here the Government should adopt the accrual system of accounting.

Conflicts Between Major Roles

In contrast to other approaches, a full program budget bases expenditures solely on programs of work regardless of objects or organizational units. As these two variations attest, program budgeting is flexible enough to be applied in a variety of ways, depending on organizational needs and administrative capabilities. Performance evaluation allows citizens and taxpayers to hold policymakers and administrators in governmental organizations accountable for their actions.

However, a further look may reveal that this may not be the case. The budget was based on a cane tonnage cut of 16,000 tonnes in the 3rd quarter and a cumulative tonnage of 25,000.

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